World Civilization –Week 4 Discussions
Week 4 Discussion 1
The development of the Roman Catholic Church can be dated back to the 11th centuries when the church was still regarded as one and was led by the Pope, who had a lot of influence on the European territory. In the middle ages, the Protestants who were against the influence of the Pope, defected from the church and formed their own with the first being the Orthodox Church. Those who remained in agreement with the Pope remain to be catholic churches, while those against are the protestants. During this middle age, the Roman Catholic Church was involved in civilization since during the time of renaissance period the Roman Catholic Church was involved in civilization where it called for similar cultures that were brought together through humanism. Common ideas were brought in and technology advanced largely.
In the 11th century, the church called for crusades largely because of the rising of Islam in the Holy land. Militaries were organized with the papal purpose of expanding power of the church (Spielvogel, 2001). Moreover, Islam had taken over the holy land where the church believed Jesus had lived. During the crusade, the Pope gained a lot of influence over several military troops, though it was temporally. The crusades resulted to looting of Constantinople during the fourth crusade, which was followed by another crusade in 1240s and 1280s. At this time, the kings lost faith in the Pope since the crusades had become political and were able to resist him and strengthen their stand. This resulted to reforming of the rigid laws and growing of nations started. Though the crusades brought some peace and need for reforms, they were not successful since the objective of controlling the Holy Land was not met. Furthermore, it left memories of the very tragic schism in 1054.
Other communities perceived the holy war as a way of gaining political power over the whole of Europe. The people viewed the crusades as romantic adventures. In addition, the other societies perceived it as a way of self-gains, since most came to fight when they were asked to, without much objection. This is a sign of high expectation from the other societies.
Week 4 Discussion 2
Nomadic societies were hunters and gatherers as mainly known, and they did not settle on places permanently like other societies since they had to stroll wide and far for their needs. They only kept important things that could be carried easily and reared cattle as their wealth, as opposed to the other communities who settled in one place and practiced livestock and farming in one place. Their development came through rearing the livestock, which they accumulated in great herds and as they moved, they engaged in little trades with other communities, where they would sell their ornaments and others of their goods.
During their movement, the nomads encountered other communities, which they could either have neighbor relations or be hostile. In some communities, they would loot from other communities, such as in the Chinese region where they raided them and some reasons was increased pressure from the Chinese and their agriculture and the changing conditions that the nomads were compelled to adapt (Spielvogel, 2001).
The nomadic societies were viewed differently from others, starting from their organization of hierarchy. The nomadic societies were organized in small groups divided into family and wealth was held communally due to the need of movement among the group members. The men were involved in hunting, while women were gatherers around home, which was the only role since they did not have specialization.
The Mongol were among the major and influential nomads and they were instrumental with ideas. The Mongol and the Turkic were behind the emperor, since it was formed of both. Genghis Khan was their king since 1206, who was quite successful in driving the growth of the empire and sent out invasion to many places, but was reasonable, as he did not allow mistreatment of his enemies without reasons. The empire was involved in connecting technologies between the East and West, or across Eurasia. Due to conflicts over taking over of the empire later after Genghis and other leaders who succeeded him died, its fall started. However, the empire ensured exchange of technologies and enhanced interactions.
Spielvogel. (2001). Instructor’s Edition for World Civilization: A Brief History. London, UK: Thomson Learning EMEA, Ltd.