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Understanding Nutrition

Marion Kelly

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Section 1: Define and discuss osteoporosis. Include in your discussion information on how osteoporosis develops; how age, sex, hormones, and genetics affect it; how activity affects it; and what dietary interventions can help prevent or treat osteoporosis.

Section 2: Explain the difference between heme and nonheme iron. How can the efficiency of absorption be increased for both types of iron?

Section 1

Osteoporosis is the thinning of the tissues of the bone and loss in bone density over duration. The bone comprises of two compartments. Osteoporosis takes place when the cortical and the trabecular compartments loose the mineral required in the bone structure (Whitney & Rolfes, 2010, 413). Calcium intake is very significant in the early stages of growth. These are the childhood, the adolescent and youthful stages. The calcium intake in these stages should be of high levels. Unfortunately, osteoporosis has no symptoms when it begins to develop. However, it is said to start from the age of forty onwards. There are two types of osteoporosis. One is known as type I osteoporosis, and the other is identified as the type II osteoporosis.

Type I is characterized by the loss of the trabecular bone. Although this loss takes place at a slow rate, it becomes so severe that ones own weight cannot be supported by the bones. This is the reason why older people have a risk of getting type I of osteoporosis. Type II takes place when the storage of calcium is slowly consumed thus weakening the cortical and the trabecular bones. The vertebrae (spine) compresses with age thus resulting to loss of height and back posture.

Such cases as a history of osteoporosis structure in the family may contribute to this disease in an individual. Smoking and excessive alcohol activities also increase the occurrences of this status. When comparing individuals based on gender, women have been noted as having a greater chance of developing these fractures as compared to men due to the active role of hormones in their bone structure. It can be prevented by taking enough calcium and other minerals during the child, adolescent and youthful stages. It can be treated through operations and additional intake of calcium and other minerals.

Marion Kelly

Section 2

Heme and the nonheme irons are the two forms of irons which occur in the foods (Whitney & Rolfes, 2010, 425). Heme iron occurs in foods from animals’ flesh such as fish, meat and poultry. On the other hand, nonheme iron occurs in foods derived from both animals and plants. However, all plant iron is nonheme iron. The body absorbs most of the heme iron as compared to the nonheme iron. About ten percent of the iron intake is in heme form. The rest is nonheme. However, the body absorbs 25% of the heme form and only 17% of the nonheme form.

Animal flesh have a peptide known as MFP factor, which increases the absorption of the nonheme iron in this flesh since the heme iron is well absorbed. Vitamin C is another catalyst that aids in the intake of nonheme iron in foods that also contain heme iron. These factors capture the iron and transform it into ferrous, which makes it easier to be absorbed. Some sugars and acids also play as catalysts in the absorption of the nonheme iron. These factors also aid in the intake of nonheme iron when it occurs with heme iron especially because heme iron has a higher prospect of intake. When nonheme iron occurs on its own, it is readily absorbed with less competition.

Whole grains, phytates in legumes, rice, proteins in soybeans, nuts, milk calcium and other polyphenols in tea, coffee, red wine and grain products are not apposite for the intake of nonheme iron (Whitney & Rolfes, 2010, 427). This is because they combine with this iron thus inhibiting its absorption. As earlier noted, heme iron is easily taken in by the body as compared to nonheme iron thus it requires more factors to increase its absorption.

References

Whitney E. N. & Rolfes, S. R. (2010). Understanding Nutrition, 12th Ed. Belmont, CA: Woodsworth Publishing.

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Understanding Nutrition

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Understanding Nutrition

Question 1

During the time of eating, carbohydrates, fats and proteins are broken down into glucose, fatty acids and amino acids respectively. In this broken down form, they are used for muscle glycogen and liver stores, body fat stores, urea where there is loss of nitrogen and body proteins.

When the body fails to receive any food whether partially or completely (fasting), the body gets fats and glucose from the respective stores. The storage in the muscle glycogen and the liver are broken down to glucose. This glucose is used to provide energy to the red blood cells, the nervous system and the brain cells. Metabolic activities also enable the body to break down into fatty acids from the body fat stores. The fatty acids are used to energy to the other cells relevant to the body.

When the body is deprived of food for more than 24 hours, the glycogen stores begin to dwindle (Whitney & Rolfes, 2010, 222). Since the body still needs energy, it reaches out to the protein stores. The lean tissues and muscles are broken down to amino acids in order to have enough glucose to serve the brain cells and other body components. The fats are converted into ketone bodies that serve as another source of energy thus sparing the protein breakdown. This function is carried out by the liver.

Diets that facilitate weight loss are meant to make the body receive less energy than the body actually needs. This enables the body to use up the excess body fats and glucose stored up in the cells in order to supplement the deficiency. By the continuous intake of these diets, the body continues consuming the excess fats and glucose. The person then consumes the needed diet only in little excess of the needed energy and fats in order to prevent obesity and to keep the body fit when there is a deficiency.

Question 2

Physical activity consumes more energy more in terms of kcalories as compared to sedentary persons or people just dieting. Activities such as running, walking, cycling, swimming or any other kind of sorting activity that requires vigorous body activity requires high expenditures of the body’s energy. Some of the major components that contribute energy expenditure include metabolism, discretionary kCalorie allowance and body composition. All these are related to body activity (Sizer & Whitney, 2010, 42). Since each component is related to body activity, it is therefore significance to note thus the higher the body activity, the higher the chances are of increasing the energy usage of the body. However, it is also significant to note that the body has its own limit. Extremes end up harming the body.

When one compares a marathon runner and a person reading a book in a library but dieting, the marathon runner loses more weight than the person reading a book does. If it is assumed that the runner is running for 3 miles in 30 minutes, he/she will loose around 150 kcalories more than the one reading a book (Whitney & Rolfes, 2010, 291). The marathon runner also consumes more discretionary kcalorie allowance. This allowance is the difference between kcalories needed to keep the energy balance constant and those needed the supply of nutrients to the body cells. Exercise uses up energy so the energy required in maintaining body weight is increased in a runner while the energy to supply nutrients remains the same. In such a case, the marathon runner looses more weight. If the sedentary person is consuming 1500kCalories to maintain body weight, the runner is using up 2000 kCalories thus a discretionary allowance of 500kCalories.

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