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Psychology

Psychology refers to the comprehensive study of mind and the conduct of humans. In daily life, we apply psychology in various areas such as education, employment and in relationships. In this manner, we realize that human behavior is a row data that verifies psychological theories. Psychology also is important in determining the cause of actions. This gives a clear portrait that our frame of mind relates with psychology. Commonly, psychology deals with emotions, language and memory .According to Barbara (1975), “psychological system includes those mental processes central to a person’s ability to make meaning of experiences and take action”. This gives an idea that life is all a matter of application of psychology. Psychology develops, as one grows old. This is evident where we cannot compare the mental capacity of child to that of a mature person. It is also through the science of mind we are able to detect mental impairment.

Many people in the past such as Ellen (2009) quoted that, “psychology explains the behavior as the product of thoughts and interpretations based on memory”. The actions of an individual would depict what he is suffering from. For instance, a depressed person acts and thinks differently compared to a person without depression. This is because a depressed person will experience irritation moods that go beyond normal misery. In a more elaborate approach, signs and symptoms are not only characterized by negative thoughts but also by the alteration of bodily functions. Possibly, we can help depressed people by offering emotional support such as patience, affection and understanding.

In the past, many psychologists used thoughts, cognition, emotions, recollections, imaginations and sensitivity to study the mind. A principle behind this was that, the mind especially of a human being was composite. Minds could not be studied well by the eye assessment. Thus, psychology was introduced to capture the idea regarding mind functionality. In a much wider perspective, we employ cognitive psychology. This relates to the mind processes, like how to memorize, ability to understand and solve problems. Numerous processes in psychology are facilitated by life experiences, such as talking to people and playing games. Psychology helps in relating to the forces of nature; adaptability to climate and other environmental changes are determined by the mind. According to Roz (1995), “pain perception is due to relationship between mind and body”. With reference to this, we understand that psychology plays key role in our daily lives.

Psychology also deals with stress. Stress is the body’s reaction to events that threaten normal physical functions of body. This reaction might be important for it helps us rise up to occasion and face our challenges. In many ways, stress has facilitated us to evade danger. It also aids in the development of new ideas that are useful in solving problems. Beyond a certain point of stress, we experience negative outcomes such as mood swing, bad relationships and low productivity. In essence, long-term exposure of stress may result to health problems. Heart attack and stroke are among the health hazards caused by stress. Signs of stress include moodiness, constant worrying and sense of loneliness, agitation together with inability to relax. The discomfort that arises due to stress is destructive; hence, we should surround ourselves with happy people in order to avoid stress.

Having got that stress has both positive and negative outcomes; there are ways in which one can cope with stress. The logic behind coping is to facilitate good health since stress occurs frequently in life. Coping is the ability to run those activities that convey stress. The main objective of coping is to alter or control the background that roots stress. The best part that arises in coping is when one realizes he has a solution to a situation that may cause stress. Many people having stress are affected severely because they perceive things to be out of control. Most people who take things to be insurmountable mostly rely more on their emotions. This brings adverse health depreciation of which results to cancer. Economically, these health complications can be discouraging because they are costly.

Stress may also imply the harmful reaction to the pressures of life. With this suggestion, we can cope with stress by responding positively to the demanding circumstances of life. The daily demands of life such as providing daily for family needs may upshot stress. Coping with this kind of stress requires direct response without complains. Stress management is all about controlling our thinking and our emotions. As human beings, we should not allow emotions to control us. Emotions such as envy, jealousy and anger are unpleasant and hence should be avoided. Therefore, the alterations of our moods should not dictate our present or future happiness. Through this, we shall have controlled our emotions and therefore effective stress management. This is the most appropriate way for creating a peaceful environment. Another point to consider is that, the friends that you keep should not be intoxicated sequentially to avoid disarray.

Under stress management, we factor in relaxation of body and mind. This is done through having enough sleep during the night and having a calm posture. To cope again; one should be able to find harmony amid turmoil. Though this might be tricky, one should know how to apply defense mechanism to achieve joy. Another key factor to consider is patience. Many times when we over expect things and the answer contrary comes to our expectations, we become annoyed. We should be able and willing to accept any occurrences for us to cope in this life. Simple meditation can help a lot in coping stress. This involves deep calmness of the mind and the surroundings.

Defense mechanism is also a psychological tool in stress coping. It refers to the insensible intellectual progression geared to cut down nervousness. Defense mechanism is essential in the creation of self-image and self-admiration. They can as well be used to monitor emotions. Defense mechanism occurs for instance, when you do not want to feel offended after someone has wronged you. Occasionally, you may shout, sing, talk to a friend or play games. This way, you find yourself adapting to that kind of surrounding. The other area is on the self-identity. You should recognize yourself and deviate from humiliating scenes.

With reference to the above, we are also able to learn that people with mental impairment are dealt with by psychologists. In this happening, the conduct of the victim talks more about the mental status. To perform this, an intense examination is done to check the level of memory. As we have seen above, psychology is the comprehensive study of human mind and behavior. Many functions of the body relate to the mind and this gives psychology a key role. In as much psychology is concerned, human behavior is dictated by life attachments such as stress and depression. Stress is important in sharpening the mind of an individual. The negative effect of stress, which is health hazard, can be corrected through defense mechanism. Coping in life stress is the ability to control activities that bring stress. Thus, a person can successively cope with stress if he perceives life optimistically.

Work Cited

Brody, Roz & Nicky Hayes. Teaching Introductory Psychology. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995. Print.

Ellen, Psyktred .What is Psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub Co, 2009. Print.

Newman, Barbara and Philip Newman. Development through Life: A Psychosocial Approach. Homewood, Ill: Dorsey Press, 1975. Print.

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Psychology

Question one

. In the process of a stimuli becoming a memory, data bypasses through the temporary storage stores before being placed in a more permanent storage. As the memory procedure begins, a stimulus also regarded as input is encountered in the brain and is then transferred to the sensory storage. The sensory storage involves the direct preliminary recording of sensory data. The data is usually stored for a brief period in its actual form. The sensory storage consists of data in the form of visualized images and entails a perceptual occurrence.

However, the length of the image is based on the rate of modality. Within the iconic memory, the pictures are stored in the sensory storage that lasts for a remarkably short period of less than a second. The echoic memory consists of auditory data stored in sensory storage for a longer duration of three seconds. The next procedure is pattern recognition, whereby as new data goes to the sensory storage, a thorough search is done to find information that matches with the new information. If the stimulus is given more attention, it makes it possible for the process to head in the short-term memory.

The short-term memory is only capable of retaining information for a period of twenty seconds. However, it is possible to increase that period through a process known as maintenance rehearsal, whereby information is constantly perceived or verbalized. The short-term memory is also divided into seven slots in which each owns a piece of data. The next procedure is primacy, whereby as one obtains information, the data is recognized before being recalled. The next process known as recency illustrates how data is recognized towards the conclusion of an event and its high probability of being recalled. This means that data placed in the middle is evaded and more unlikely to be recalled.

Question two

The behavioral approach to understanding personality claims that peoples’ behavior is consistent because they produce the response that they have been programmed to produce. People who are in the same situation are more likely to behave in the same manner. For instance, it is not usual to see a person crying at a party. In the same manner, one is not likely to encounter people laughing when attending a funeral.

In personality, people tend to show different behaviors because they have been programmed to produce different responses. Behavior influences a person’s personality and hence people have different personalities because personality is usually learnt. People learn from different sources and this influences their behavior to be dissimilar.

Abnormality in personality occurs where people behave according to the situation. They will often change their behavior according to the consequences they are likely to get. Thus, their personality will be seen as abnormal because of inconsistency. People who behave contrary to the situation are considered abnormal. Therefore, the environment is important when deciding the normalcy of people’s personality. It is possible for personality to be learnt, and an example can be witnessed in the case of children.

Children learn their behavior by observing and emulating the behavior of those who are closest to them. Children will often behave the way they see other adults or other children, who are close to them behave. Thus, parents, relatives and teachers are some of the major influences in a child’s life. The child will often observe the behavior of these adults or pay attention to how they are behaving. In some cases, they do this regardless of the consequences involved. For instance, someone who grows up seeing his or her parents drink will often take up the habit. This will however change when the person experiences the negative consequences of the habit. For instance, someone might decide to stop drinking when he encounters a fatal accident caused by drunken driving.

Change in personality is possible through behavioral change and negative responses. A person can change his or her personality by changing the consequences of a particular behavior. For instance, people with a negative or unpleasant personality will change their behavior when they do not receive positive responses for their behavior.

Question three

Erik Erikson supposed that psychosocial development occurred in several stages that described the effects of social incidents across the entire lifespan. Every stage explains on a person becoming proficient in life. If a stage is dealt with successfully, the individual will have high self-esteem, which is also known as ego strength or value. However, if the stage is managed with failure, the individual possesses a sense of insufficiency. The first stage known as identity vs. confusion occurs during the adolescent stage within the age of twelve to eighteen years.

The identity vs. confusion stage requires teenagers to grow an intellect of self and individual identity. Individuals who obtain the necessary support and corroboration through personal discovery end up forming a firm sense of self, autonomy and direction. However, people who are left out to be uncertain of their principles and interests end up being insecure and confused about their present and future identity. The next stage of psychosocial development is known as intimacy vs. isolation, in which individuals are usually in their young adulthood within the age bracket of nineteen to forty years. They are required to develop personal, affectionate relationships with other people.

If the individuals are successful in achieving those requirements, they become more devoted and protected and therefore, able to develop firm relationships. However, failure to meet the necessities of this stage only leads to a person becoming lonely and isolated. Generativity vs. stagnation is another stage of psychosocial development that consists of individuals within the age bracket of forty to sixty-five years. These people are required to develop or foster things that will outlive them through bearing and raising children or developing a positive influence that will profit a large number of people in the community.

People who succeed in this stage end up with a sense of value and achievement while those who fail end up feeling unimportant because of their shallow participation in humanity. The fourth stage of psychosocial development is the Ego vs. Despair, which occurs in people within the age bracket of sixty-five years to death. The old-aged individuals are required to reflect back on their past life and experience a sense of accomplishment. People who become successful in this stage end up conveying feelings of intelligence while those who fail end up living in hopelessness, regret and resentment.

Question four how the child would learn to look at the trainer and pay attention and that is not,

Autism is a psychological illness that interferes with the neural formation featured by damaged social interaction and regulative behavior. These symptoms are observed in a child before the age of three years. Autistic children evade maintaining eye contact since they view the faces they meet as an uneasy intimidation. In the connection between eye movements and brain operations, an emotional focus located in the brain that involves pessimistic reactions lights up to increasingly unusual levels during a direct stare upon a normal face.

Working with three-year-old children can sometimes be problematic and exhausting, especially if the child has autism. Autism affects the behavior and growth of a child, in that the child does not develop at the same rate as other children. Yet the experience can be rewarding and fulfilling if done successfully. One way of teaching a child with autism any behavior, would be made by using the principles of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning seeks to reward external behavior. Since it is the child’s first time with me, I would start by making her feel comfortable around me.

I would achieve this by rewarding her every time she attempts to contact me. A child needs reassurance that she is dealing with a friendly person. I will make sure that whenever she looks at me directly, I will reward her with a smile or a playful act. Being young, she will appreciate such little acts. The next step would be to teaching her skills of maintaining eye contact and paying attention when communicating with a person in training her on how to sit a chair. I would first have a light chat with her to observe the level of eye contact and concentration she gives in response. One of the common factors about children with autism is that the most effort in eye contact they can make is viewing the mouth section of the face instead of the eyes.

First, I will consider some of the factors that are making the child reluctant in maintaining eye contact. The child might dislike the topic am discussing while training her to sit on the chair. In order to curb this problem, I would focus on discussing a topic that interests the child. For instance, if the child’s interest were on science, I would formulate a scientific theory that is related with the activity of sitting down. As a result, the child would be become excited to the extent of smiling while glancing directly at my face. If removing the negative reinforcement does not work, I will introduce positive reinforcement. This will involve rewarding her for every attempt she makes in maintaining direct eye contact with me. For instance, her first step might be positioning her head posture towards the direction of my face.

I will reward her for doing this and I will ensure her of a better reward if she attempts at making direct eye contact while interacting with me. She may be reluctant at first and she might see it as a game. However, I will be relentless until she finally responds as she looks at me in the face. When she does this, I will reward her with something like a toy. I will apply the same principles when teaching her how to pay attention, but I will use something, such as a simple game. I will introduce a reward system, where I will reward her whenever she makes an effort to concentrate on the game

Question five

Self-actualization is the process whereby an individual accomplish his full potential. It focuses on the final destination, whereby a person recognizes the achievements he has positioned for himself. Myself, I have gone through several experiences that made it challenging for me to realize my potential. For example, I once experienced a fatal car accident as I was heading to School from home. The cab driver was driving under the influence of alcohol but trusted that he was stable enough to be in control of the vehicle.

It was raining heavily on that day and therefore, the car’s worn out headlights were affected and stopped functioning. The roads were empty and at that point, the driver decided to speed to enable me reach School on time. However, he appeared to be driving in the wrong lane. Unfortunately, a large truck speeding from the opposite direction almost lost its way to colliding with the vehicle. As a result, the cab driver lost power over the vehicle as he was trying to avoid the collision and we ended up in a downhill forest on the right side of the road.

The vehicle overturned five times before we landed on a flat surface next to a nearby swamp. Luckily, we both survived, but I ended up having a broken leg which took a lengthily period to heal. Before the accident, I lived a mediocre life of traveling from home to school and attending classes. I was passive in the school’s club activities including sports. I never acknowledged the importance of participating in such activities because I perceived the School environment as an atmosphere for monotonous academics.

However, the challenge of limping due to having a broken leg made me realize how crucial it was to be involved in various physical activities. Although I was unable to participate in any of those activities due to my recovery process, I decided not to give up and even started going for several physical therapy sessions. My recovery process was quickened and within several months, the condition of my leg was improving. Immediately after recovery, I joined the School’s basketball team and became as active as possible

The accident made me realize that I was not appreciating the full meaning of life and was instead taking it for granted. The thought of losing a fundamental part of my body terrified me because I was playing basketball; I realized the passion and athletic potential I could have lost if I failed to have a second chance at life. In addition, I made it a part of my mission to encourage other students within the School environment who felt inadequate not to doubt their potential and encouraged them on various ways to help them realize their potential. The tragic experience made me more appreciative of what life has offered me, patient and more confident about my potential in carrying out various activities.

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