I. Teacher information
Grade level: 4A
Classroom type: regular education
Classroom composition: age 8-10 mixed gender
II. Standards for classroom behavior
A. Classroom rules
In classroom rules development, I would engage the students in the formation of the rules by having the students’ state the behaviors they would like their fellow students to engage in to enhance a good learning environment. I would help them understand the importance of setting rules, and that they are applicable to everyone in the classroom. These classroom rules would be set in a way that they do not infringe the rights of the students so long as the behavior of the student does not cause harm to the safety of other students, for example, through harassment. Rules set would also ensure that freedom of expression for students is allowed only when it does not seriously disrupt the learning process of others.
In the process of teaching rules, I would incorporate use of books to help the students further understand the benefits of such set rules and make charts to review them later with the students when they find difficulty in following the rules. Once the rules are determined, I would make commitment forms and give the students to have their parents sign them explaining the rules general effect in the learning accomplishments of the students. Another method I would apply is discussing some of the behavior rules that would lead to the accomplishment of goals set by the students.
B. Classroom procedures
I would use different techniques including use of picture signals, rewarding those students who follow the rules, encouraging the students to share on their experience in following the rules and encouraging those who have difficulties. I would encourage students to help each other in following the rules. I would video tape the role playing process and review the tape with the students to help them identify the ways of behavior that are best and the wrong ones.
I would first demonstrate the procedure that I expect the students to follow in regards to students’ behavior then encourage the students to follow my example. I would deal with behaviors that are not followed by encouraging the students to practice them as often as possible and not by reprimanding the students. These practices would ensure that these behaviors are deeply embedded in the characters of the students.
III. Student motivation to learn
A. Being actively involved in the learning process
I would be involved by providing an intense personal experience to students who find difficulty during the learning process and explain to them how I overcame the situation. Another way of motivating the students to enjoy the learning process would be showing an interest in what I teach and dealing with the teaching experience enthusiastically, hence, encouraging the students to emulate my enthusiasm therefore enhancing learning.
B. Helping students experience success
Studies indicate that student learning is enhanced when the students experience high rates of success in task completion with negative feedback diminishing their motivation to engage in future tasks that resemble those already failed in. I would get involved in helping students place their expectation of success at an attainable level. I would incorporate different methods in learning that will appeal to the different personalities. I would include use of portfolios to motivate students to make progress in their work by keeping a collection of their work to show progress.
C. Provision of realistic and immediate feedback that enhances self-efficacy
Slow students and those whose have many failures in their work are especially vulnerable, as they tend to view their failures as unacceptable. I would offer feedback that is realistic but motivational which points out the strengths and weak areas of students and at the same time gives solutions that would effectively improve a student’s performance. Quality feedback allows students to evaluate where they are in relation to the goals set and it demonstrates the teacher’s confidence in students’ attaining their goals. I would encourage self-evaluation, as it allows students to develop a sense of responsibility towards the work they do and gives them fulfillment, as they view success as a result of their efforts.
D. Responsiveness to instructions on students’ learning styles and special abilities
As a teacher, I could try repeating the main points to clarify them for slow students or those with poor fluency in a certain language. I would check students’ understanding frequently. Provision of an outline for the lesson in advance would give students adequate time to familiarize themselves with the topic before teaching it. I would identify students requiring special attention and discuss the issue with their parents. I would document efforts made in aiding the child catch up with normal learners and share with the parents, so that they can also share in efforts to help their child succeed. I would use special educational teaching resources on behavior management techniques and instruction strategies that can be effective for both the child and difficult parents. I would also differentiate instructions and control the difficulty of tasks assigned to accommodate the students.
E. Involvement in self-evaluating students’ learning and effort
I would ensure that there is understanding of the goals set in regards to a certain activity. The students would be helped to understand why this method of assessment is important. I would help the students gain skills for working in groups and ensure that each student’s contribution in a group work is traceable. I would implement the process approach that encourages individual accountability and face-to-face student interactions, teaching skills of student collaboration and encouraging positive interdependence where students rely on each student’s strong points to bring about success for the entire group. I would ensure the students are involved in assessment process to understand their level of understanding and ensure that each student receives feedback and sets an improvement goal.
IV. Responding to Violations of Rules and Procedures
A. Classroom Disruptions
1. Proactive practices and procedures
I would implement procedures to intervene in academic or social problems. Infrequent academic problemswould be curbed by assumption that it was an error and the student’s aim was to make the correct response. Provision of assistance and encouragement of practice would be necessary. If academic problems were frequent, the assumption would be that the students learnt the wrong way. Diagnosing the problem; I would focus on the main rule and provide feedback and constant practice. I would assume that the student has understood the correct way. In infrequent student behavior, the assumption is that the action was deliberate; hence; I would provide a negative consequence of the action and assume that the student will act appropriately in future.
2. Teacher’s response
I would state my expectations of students in a clear and direct manner. Proximity control is another method that can be used, that is by moving closer to the student misbehaving. I would incorporate involvement of the misbehaving student in topics by calling his or her name to reduce boredom and heighten his or her attention. Use of a signal indicating that I would like the behavior to stop, for example pointing at the class, would also lead to a calmer situation in class. I would increase the class interest by use of stories and humor and therefore reduce disruptive activities as the class becomes more attentive.
B. Defiant behavior
1. Proactive practices and procedures
The procedure for coping with this issue includes preparing the students for situations that may be difficult. Showing them strategies on how to go through problematic tests in class is a technique I would apply. Building a positive relations bank with the students is also important, as it ensures respect of the students towards the teacher. When making requests from the students, I would ensure politeness but firmness. I would ensure there is clarity in the requirement to prevent incidents of indiscipline. I would also model self-control not to be ensnared in the students’ attempts to gain control.
2. Teacher’s response
I would expand my active listening techniques to identify students’ feelings and respond thoughtfully relating to the problem issues. By sending a clear message of my expectations of their behavior or discipline, I will aid in curbing indiscipline issues. Assisting the problematic students will also aid in solving such problems, by trying to connect with them and responding to their negative feelings. I would also review available options with the problematic student, state the consequence of each, and give the students a chance to make the choice for themselves.
C. Violent behavior
1. Proactive practices and procedures
This could be done by validating the underlying feeling and helping students understand the impact of their actions on others. I would help the student understand that their behavior violates someone else’s right and would give the student alternative actions that would be less violent. I would give students positive options for them to choose one they feel they are comfortable with and invite them to try implementing it.
2. Teacher’s response
A response I would apply would be reducing tension, remaining calm in order not to agitate the situation further, and not raising my voice while dealing with the situation. I would deal with students in an environment of minimal risk and give students space to think about their action. I would also remind students the consequences of such actions and provide them with choices of better actions. I would set limits in the expectations to govern the students’ actions.
V. Using Problem Solving to Resolve Behavior Problems
A. Individual students
Problem solving can be done through establishment of a warm, personal relationship with the student that helps ease the situation. When the problem occurs, it is dealt with by trying to learn the student’s reason, hence aiding the student in making value judgment on the action. After that, I would aid the student in coming up with a plan on how to act differently in future and help them commit themselves in sticking to the plan. I would then follow up to ensure students are exercising the plan consistently and accept no excuses for failure to uphold the expected actions.
B. Between students
In solving problems between students, role-playing is applicable. During role-playing, I would go through the different steps with the students to help them grasp the importance of good behavior in class. I would give each student an example of violation and let every one come up with a problem-solving plan. I would relate the problem-solving process with classroom management plan to give it more relevance.
Group problem can be solved by implementing class meetings with the meetings frequency and length being determined by the magnitude of behavioral problems to the class. These discussions should be aimed at coming up with a solution that is workable. Student involvement should be encouraged in the class meetings to get them involved in conception of solutions. Different roles in the discussion meetings should be allocated to different students, as they tend to relate better with their peers.
VI. Developing individual behavior change plans
A. Functional behavior assessment
1. Student information
Age: 10 years
Placement: Regular education
2. Undesirable student behavior
a) Target behavior
The specific undesirable behavior is noisemaking: the student talks loudly and constantly during the lesson causing disruption of classroom activities.
The frequency of this behavior in the specific student is high regardless of efforts to combat this disruptive behavior.
The location where this behavior frequently occurs is in the classroom especially during class discussions.
The cause of the behavior is need of constant attention. The case student has a need for attention and tries gaining it in every instance he can get.
This behavior leads to a disruption in normal classroom procedures sometimes leading to measures like isolating the student occurring. This may have a psychological effect on the student and more subtle measures are preferred though they sometimes fail to work.
The function that this behavior plays for the student is that it helps him gain the attention that he feels he lacks elsewhere. Children at this age undergo various psychological changes and need a lot of love and attention, and if the student fails to get it where he should, he may try to get it elsewhere.
3. Previous interventions
In previous interventions, the student has been explained to the consequences of his actions on the right of the others to experience undisrupted learning. He has also been told about other behaviors he can indulge in at the right moment to receive attention in a positive manner and has been taught how to build good relations with others for them to accept him without him having to search for attention in an inappropriate manner.
4. Desired student behavior
a) Replacement behavior
Recommended replacement behavior would be for the student to maintain silence and incorporation of discussions in class work to give the student a chance to talk.
This desired behavior would lead to a more serene learning environment for all the students and better behavior acquisition for the particular student.
c) Serving the same function
The desired behavior will serve the function of improving the class-learning atmosphere and creating a good relation between that student and other students.
B. Behavior intervention plan/ contract
1. Specific Student Behavior
a) Target Behavior
The target behavior identified is noisemaking and disruption of classroom activities.
b) Replacement behavior
Replacement behavior was selectively speaking at appropriate times and incorporation of classroom discussions to enable the student practice refraining from noisemaking.
2. Consequences for behavior
a) Positive reinforcement
The reward that would be used is complementing the student when he implements the behavior taught and giving the student opportunities to participate in classroom discussions.
Punishment used could be withdrawal of a privilege such as recess time or isolation of the student if his behavior becomes unmanageable.
3. Behavior plan implementation
First of all, determination of the skills would be needed by the students to curb his problem. The next step is helping the student identify the need for changing his behavior. Then a plan is made where the components of the new behavior are explained to the student in detail. Next, I would model the new behavior to the student for him to follow my lead. After that, I would encourage the student to practice the new behavior in the class setting until he perfects it. I would then encourage him to report to me what he feels about utilizing the new behavior skill and the response of his fellow students.
4. Contract length
I would set a time limit of a month on the contract to encourage rapid behavior change in the student and encourage him all the way with incentives and rewards.
5. On-going behavior monitoring
a) Recording method
The behavior to be changed will be recorded, and the desired behavior and consequences would be recorded too. Each day I will rate the student’s progress on his desired behavior to ensure that he progresses and tick it on a contract card created. The travel card method is the method I would prefer using.
I would monitor the behavior on a daily basis and tick the travel card daily.
I would be the recorder but would integrate the student in self-evaluation of his progress in behavior change.
6. Periodic contract evaluation
The data will be collected on a daily basis but the review with the student will occur weekly to ensure the student understands the need for behavior change.
b) Persons involved
The people involved would me the teacher, the student himself and the parents of the child.
c) Criteria of success
Success will be possible if I encourage the child to pursue his behavior change by reminding him the benefits of the new behavior. Integrating the parents in the process, they are able to motivate him from home and aid him in behavior change making the task easier for him. The contract set should be fair to the student and the involved parties and it should be clear regarding the expectations.