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Recommended Practice for Drilling and Well Servicing Operations Involving Hydrogen Sul?de

API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 49 THIRD EDITION, MAY 2001

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Recommended Practice for Drilling and Well Servicing Operations Involving Hydrogen Sul?de

Upstream Segment API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 49 THIRD EDITION, MAY 2001
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SPECIAL NOTES
API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed. API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers, manufacturers, or suppliers to warn and properly train and equip their employees, and others exposed, concerning health and safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their obligations under local, state, or federal laws. Information concerning safety and health risks and proper precautions with respect to particular materials and conditions should be obtained from the employer, the manufacturer or supplier of that material, or the material safety data sheet. Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by implication or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or product covered by letters patent. Neither should anything contained in the publication be construed as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent. Generally, API standards are reviewed and revised, reaf?rmed, or withdrawn at least every ?ve years. Sometimes a one-time extension of up to two years will be added to this review cycle. This publication will no longer be in effect ?ve years after its publication date as an operative API standard or, where an extension has been granted, upon republication. Status of the publication can be ascertained from the API Upstream Segment [telephone (202) 6828000]. A catalog of API publications and materials is published annually and updated quarterly by API, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. This document was produced under API standardization procedures that ensure appropriate noti?cation and participation in the developmental process and is designated as an API standard. Questions concerning the interpretation of the content of this standard or comments and questions concerning the procedures under which this standard was developed should be directed in writing to the standardization manager, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate all or any part of the material published herein should also be addressed to the general manager. API standards are published to facilitate the broad availability of proven, sound engineering and operating practices. These standards are not intended to obviate the need for applying sound engineering judgment regarding when and where these standards should be utilized. The formulation and publication of API standards is not intended in any way to inhibit anyone from using any other practices. Any manufacturer marking equipment or materials in conformance with the marking requirements of an API standard is solely responsible for complying with all the applicable requirements of that standard. API does not represent, warrant, or guarantee that such products do in fact conform to the applicable API standard.

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All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact the Publisher, API Publishing Services, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.
Copyright ?© 2001 American Petroleum Institute

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FOREWORD
This recommended practice was prepared by the API Subcommittee on Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing Involving Hydrogen Sul?de. This standard is under the administration of the American Petroleum Institute Upstream DepartmentOs Executive Committee on Drilling and Production Operations. It is intended that these voluntary recommended practices serve as a guide to promote and maintain integrity of oil and gas well drilling and servicing facilities and operations in the interest of public safety, personnel safety, and protection of the environment. Users of this publication are reminded that constantly developing technology, speci?c company requirements and policy, and specialized or limited operations do not permit coverage of all possible operations, practices, or alternatives. This standard is not so comprehensive as to present all of the recommended practices for oil and gas well drilling and servicing operations involving hydrogen sul?de. Alternative operating procedures and/or equipment are available and routinely used to meet or exceed recommended practices or performance levels set forth herein. Recommendations presented in this publication are based on industry experience and expertise involving a wide range of operating locations and conditions. Recommendations presented in this publication are not intended to inhibit developing technology and equipment improvements or improved operating procedures. This publication, or portions thereof, cannot be substituted for quali?ed technical/operations analysis and judgment to ?t a speci?c situation. There may be federal, state, or local statutes, rules, or regulations requiring oil and gas well drilling and servicing operations to be conducted in a safe or environmentally sound manner. Organizations and individuals using this standard are cautioned that requirements of federal, state, or local laws and regulations are constantly changing. These requirements should be reviewed to determine whether the practices recommended herein and the operations being planned or conducted are consistent with current laws and regulations. Information concerning safety and health risks and proper precautions with respect to particular materials and conditions should be obtained from the employer, the manufacturer or supplier of that material, or the material safety data sheet (MSDS). Provisions of these voluntary recommended practices include use of the verbs OshallO and Oshould,O whichever is deemed most applicable for the speci?c situation. For purposes of this publication, the following de?nitions are applicable: Shall: Indicates the Orecommended practice(s)O have universal applicability to that speci?c activity. Should: Denotes a Orecommended practice(s)O 1) where a safe comparable alternative practice(s) is available; 2) that may be impractical under certain circumstances; or 3) that may be unnecessary under certain circumstances. API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them; however, the Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for the violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation with which this publication may con?ict. Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the standardization manager, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.

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CONTENTS
Page

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SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Regulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Other References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 2 3

3

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATED DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.1 Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.2 De?nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 APPLICABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Personnel and Equipment Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Initiation of Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Legal Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERSONNEL TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Minimum Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Additional Training for Onsite Supervisory Personnel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Hydrogen Sul?de Safety Instructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Training Visitors and Other Non-Regularly Assigned Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DETECTION EQUIPMENT AND PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT (PPE) 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Detection Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Fixed (Stationary) Hydrogen Sul?de Monitoring Detection Systems . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Sensor Locations and Settings and Equipment Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Equipment Calibration and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6 Breathing (Respiratory Protection) Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7

4

5

6

7

CONTINGENCY PLANNING, INCLUDING EMERGENCY PROCEDURES . . . . 8 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7.2 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.3 Availability of Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.4 Plan Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.5 Immediate Action Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.6 Noti?cation Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.7 Community Warning and Protection Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.8 Well-Ignition Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.9 Training and Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.10 Updating Provisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 CLASSIFICATION OF LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Locations with Uncon?ned Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Locations with Con?ned Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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11 11 11 12

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WELL MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 Materials Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Materials Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Well Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Equipment Selection and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 16

10 WELLSITE SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Fluid Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Hydrogen Sul?de from Pressure Maintenance and/or Water?ooding Operations 10.6 Special Precautions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7 Hydrogen Sul?de and Sulfur Dioxide Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.8 Hydrogen Sul?de Ignition Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 SPECIAL OPERATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Venting Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Wireline Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Perforating Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5 Snubbing Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6 Continuous Reeled (Coiled) Tubing Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.7 Freezing Operations (PLUG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.8 Valve Drilling and Hot Tapping Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.9 Coring Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.10 Well Evaluation and Testing Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX A

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 APPENDIX B PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SULFUR DIOXIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 APPENDIX C A SCREENING APPROACH TO DISPERSION OF HYDROGEN . . 23 Figures C-1 Radius of Hydrogen Sul?de Exposure, Continuous Daytime Hydrogen Sul?de Releases [PG F (Stable)N2.2 MPH Wind Speed] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2 Radius of Hydrogen Sul?de Exposure, Continuous Nighttime Hydrogen Sul?de Releases [PG F (Stable)N2.2 MPH Wind Speed]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3 Radius of Hydrogen Sul?de Exposure, Instantaneous Daytime Hydrogen Sul?de Releases [Slade A (Slightly Unstable)N5 MPH Wind Speed] . . . . . . . . . C-4 Radius of Hydrogen Sul?de Exposure, Instantaneous Nighttime Hydrogen Sul?de Releases [Slade B (Neutral)N2.2 MPH Wind Speed] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24 24 25 25

Tables C-1 Linear Regression Coef?cients for Mathematical Predictions of ROE as a Function of Downwind Hydrogen Sul?de Concentration and Release Quantity/Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

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Recommended Practice for Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing Operations Involving Hydrogen Sul?de
0 Introduction
The petroleum industry, through many years of research and operating experience, has developed guidelines and standards for safe operations under conditions involving hydrogen sul?de. Continuing industry efforts, which include planning, prudent selection and layout of equipment, prudent selection of materials, operating and emergency procedures, specialized safety equipment, and appropriate personnel training, have contributed to successful and safe operations. Effective response to emergencies requires prior planning. Good engineering practice (engineering and administrative controls) dictates that operations systems be designed to minimize exposure of personnel and the public to hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide. API Bull E1

Bull E4

Spec 5CT Spec 5D Bull 6J RP 7G RP 14C

1 Scope
Recommendations set forth in this publication apply to oil and gas well drilling and servicing operations involving hydrogen sul?de. These operations include well drilling, completion, servicing, workover, downhole maintenance, and plug and abandonment procedures conducted with hydrogen sul?de present in the ?uids being handled. Coverage of this publication is applicable to operations con?ned to the original wellbore or original total depth and applies to the selection of materials for installation or use in the well and in the well drilling or servicing operation(s). The presence of hydrogen sul?de in these operations also presents the possibility of exposure to sulfur dioxide from the combustion of hydrogen sul?de. Refer to Section 4 for applicability of this standard. This standard addresses personnel training, personnel protective equipment, contingency planning and emergency procedures, classi?cation of locations, materials and equipment, operations, rig practices, special operations, offshore operations, characteristics of hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide, and evaluation and selection of hydrogen sul?de monitoring equipment.

RP 14F

Spec 16A Spec 16C RP 53 RP 54 RP 67 RP 500

RP 505

Std 2015 RP 2201 Spec 6A

2 References
2.1 STANDARDS The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the standard. All standards are subject to revision, and users are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated below.

Generic Hazardous Chemical Category List and Inventory for the Oil and Gas Exploration & Production Industry Release Reporting for the Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Industry as Required by the CWA, CERCLA, and SARA Title III Speci?cation for Casing and Tubing Speci?cation for Drill Pipe Testing of Oil?eld Elastomers, A Tutorial Drill Stem Design and Operating Limits Analysis, Design, Installation, and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems on Offshore Production Platforms Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Fixed and Floating Offshore Petroleum Facilities for Unclassi?ed and Class I, Division 1, and Division 2 Locations Speci?cation for Drill Through Equipment Speci?cation for Choke and Kill Systems Blowout Prevention Equipment Systems for Drilling Wells Occupational Safety for Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing Operations Oil?eld Explosives Safety Recommended Practice for Classi?cation of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classi?ed as Class I, Division 1 and Division 2 Classi?cation of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classi?ed as Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2 Safe Entry and Cleaning of Petroleum Storage Tanks Procedures for Welding or Hot Tapping on Equipment in Service Speci?cation for Valves and Wellhead Equipment

ACGIH1 Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices IES RP7-1990 Practice for Industrial Lighting Practices for Respiratory Protection Z88-2
1American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists, Kemper Meadow Center, 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45240.

1
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DRILLING AND WELL SERVICING OPERATIIONS INVOLVING HYDROGEN SULFIDE

2

EPA2 EPA/600/8 E86/026A 40 CFR 40 CFR 40 CFR 40 CFR ISA3 S12.15 RP12.15 NACE4 MR0175

MMS (DOI)11 30 CFR OSHA12 29 CFR 29 CFR 29 CFR

Parts 250 & 256, Oil, Gas, and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf Part 1910.38, Employee Emergency Plans and Fire Prevention Plans Part 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Part 1910.134, Respiratory Protection Standard Part 1910.146, Permit-Required Con?ned Spaces Part 1910.1000, 321Air Contaminants Part 1910 Subpart I, Personal Protective Equipment Part 1910.1200, Hazard Communication Standard

Performance Requirements for Hydrogen Sul?de Detection Instruments Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Hydrogen Sul?de Detection Instruments Sul?de Stress Cracking Resistant Materials for Oil?eld Equipment National Response Team Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis, Emergency Planning for Extremely Hazardous Substances National Electrical Code Criteria for a Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Sulfur Dioxide (GPO No. 017-033-00029) Criteria for a Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Hydrogen Sul?de (GPO No. 017-033-00217-7)

29 CFR 29 CFR 29 CFR 29 CFR

NRT-15

NFPA6 NFPA 70 NIOSH7 74-111

2.3 OTHER REFERENCES 1. Poda, George A., OHydrogen Sul?de Can Be Handled Safely,O Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 12, 795?800, June 1966. 2. Ronk, Richard and White, M. K., OHydrogen Sul?de and the Probabilities of Inhalation Through a Tympanic Membrane Defect,O Journal of Occupational Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 5, 337?340, May 1985. 3. Pasquill, F., Atmospheric Diffusion, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1947. 4. Slade, D. H., Metrology and Atomic Energy NTIS-TID 24190 (1968), National Technical Information Service (NTIS), U.S. Department of Commerce, Spring?eld, VA 22161. 5. Wilson, D. J., ORelease and Dispersion of Gas from Pipeline Ruptures,O Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
8U.S. Department of Interior, available from U.S. Government Printing Of?ce, Washington, D.C. 20402. 9U.S. Department of Transportation, available from U.S. Government Printing Of?ce, Washington, D.C. 20402. 10U.S. Department of Transportation, available from U.S. Government Printing Of?ce, Washington, D.C. 20402. 11U.S. Department of Interior, available from U.S. Government Printing Of?ce, Washington, D.C. 20402 12Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Deptartment of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20402.

77-158

2.2 REGULATIONS The following regulations are subject to revision, and users should determine the latest version to ensure compliance.
2U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460. 3Instrument Society of America, 67 Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12277, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. 4NACE International, 1440 South Creek Drive, P.O. Box 218340, Houston, Texas 77218-8340. 5U.S. National Response Team, c/o EPA, MC 5101, 401 M Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460. 6National Fire Protection Association, 1 Battery March Park, Quincy, Massachusetts 02269. 7National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health, 4646 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226.

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Health Assessment Document for Hydrogen Sul?de Part 264, Subpart D, Contingency Plans and Emergency Procedures Part 302, Designation, Reportable Quantities, and Noti?cation Part 355, Emergency Planning and Noti?cation Part 370, Hazardous Chemical Reporting: Community Right-to-Know

Bureau of Mines (DOI)8 30 CFR Chapter 1, Subchapter B, Part II, Subpart H, Respiratory Protection Devices Coast Guard (DOT)9 33 CFR Parts 140to 146: Emergency Evacuation Plans for Manned OCS Facilities DOT10 49 CFR Part 178, Subpart C, Shipping Container Speci?cations

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 49

6. Jann, P. R., OEvaluation of Sheltering In Place,O Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industry, Vol. 2, No. 1, January. 1989, pp 33?38. 7. MacFarlane, D. R. and Ewing, T. F., OAcute Health Effects From Accidental Releases of High Toxic Hazard Chemicals,O Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industry, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 1990, pp 167?176. 8. Wilson, D. J., OStay Indoors or Evacuate to Avoid Exposure to Toxic Gas,O Emergency Preparedness Digest, Ottawa, Canada, January?March 1987, pp 19?24. 9. Davies, P. C. and Purdy, G.,OToxic Gas Risk AssessmentsNThe Effects of Being Indoors,O North Western Branch Papers 1986 No. 1, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Health and Safety Executive, Major Hazards Assessment Unit, St. Annes House, Stanley Precinct,, Bootle, Merseyside, England. 10. Glickman, T.S. and Ujrhara, A. M., OProtective Action Decision Making in Toxic Vapor Cloud Emergencies,O Center for Risk Management, Resources for the Future, Washington, D. C. 20036. 11. Wilson, D. J., OVariation of Indoor Shelter Effectiveness Caused by Air Leakage Variability of Houses in Canada and the USA,O US EPA/FEMA Conference on Effective Use of In-Place Sheltering as a Potential Option to Evacuation During Chemical Release Emergencies, Emmitsburg, MD, November 30 ? December 1, 1988. 2.4 BIBLIOGRAPHY The following publications contain information related to this subject: 1. API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Fixed and Floating Offshore Petroleum Facilities for Unclassi?ed and Class 1, Divison 1, and Division 2 Locations, API, 1220 L St., NW, Washington, D.C. 20005, 1999. 2. API RP 55, Recommended Practices for Conducting Oil and Gas Producing and Gas Processing Plant Operations Involving Hydrogen Sul?de, API, 1220 L St., NW Washington, D.C. 20005, 1995. 3. GPA 2145-85, Physical Constants of Paraf?n Hydrocarbons and Other Components of Natural Gas, available from Gas Processors Association, 6526 E. 60th Street, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74145. 4. NIOSH, Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Hydrogen Sul?de, available from US Government Printing Of?ce, Washington D.C. 20402. 5. Public Health Service Publication 999-AP-26, Workbook on Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates, D. Bruce Tanner, available from U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Cincinnati, Ohio. 6. Texas Railroad Commission Rule 36, Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources Operations Hydrogen Sul?de Areas, Texas Railroad Commission, Austin, Texas.
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3 Acronyms and Abbreviated De?nitions
The following acronyms and abbreviations are used in this publication: 3.1 ACRONYMS ACC ACGIH acceptable ceiling concentration American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ANSI American National Standards Institute API American Petroleum Institute BOP blowout preventer CAS Chemical Abstract Service CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act CFR Code of Federal Regulations CGA Compressed Gas Association DC direct current DOI U. S. Department of Interior DOL U. S. Department of Labor DOT U. S. Department of Transportation EMI electromagnetic interference EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act FR Federal Register HAZWOPER Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response H2S hydrogen sul?de IDLH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health ISA Instrument Society of America LEL lower explosive limit MMS Minerals Management Service MSDS material safety data sheet NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers NFPA National Fire Protection Association NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NRTL Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory NTIS National Technical Information Service OCS outer continental shelf Occupational Safety and Health AdminisOSHA tration PEL permissible exposure limit PG Pasquill-Gifford ppm parts per million RCRA Resource Conservation & Recovery Act REL recommended exposure level RFI radio frequency interference ROE radius of exposure RP Recommended Practice(s) RQ reportable quantity

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SARA SCF SERC SO2 SSC STEL TLV TPQ TWA

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act standard cubic feet State Emergency Response Commission sulfur dioxide sul?de stress cracking Short-Term Exposure Level threshold limit value threshold planning quantity time weighted average

3.2.9 immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH): An atmospheric concentration of any toxic, corrosive, or asphyxiant substance that poses an immediate threat to life or would cause irreversible or delayed adverse health effects or would interfere with an individualOs ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. The ACGIH has established 300 ppm or greater of H2S as an IDLH exposure. 3.2.10 inadequately ventilated: Ventilation (natural or arti?cial) that is not suf?cient to prevent the accumulation of signi?cant quantities of toxic or inert gases such that a hazard is created. 3.2.11 length-of-stain detector: A specially designed pump and colorimetric indicator tube detector (length-ofstain), with a supply of detector tubes, that operates by using the pump to pull a known volume of air or gas through a detector tube. The tubes contain chemical reagents that are designed to detect the presence and display the concentration of speci?c gases or vapors in the sample. The length of the resultant color band in the tube indicates an instantaneous quantitative concentration of the speci?c chemical in the sample. 3.2.12 permissible exposure limit (PEL): TWA concentrations that must not be exceeded during any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week. PELs are subject to change. 3.2.13 shall: Indicates the Orecommended practice(s)O has universal applicability to that speci?c activity. 3.2.14 shelter-in-place: The concept of providing the public protection from exposure to toxic gas or vapor releases to the environment by having residents stay indoors until emergency evacuators arrive or the emergency is over. 3.2.15 short term exposure limit (STEL): A 15minute TWA exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday. 3.2.16 should: Denotes a Orecommended practice(s)O 1) where a safe comparable alternative practice(s) is available; 2) that may be impractical under certain circumstances; or 3) that may be unnecessary under certain circumstances. 3.2.17 special operations: any service performed on or in a well other than the normal drilling or service operations that are accomplished in their entirety by a drilling or servicing rig. 3.2.18 sulfur dioxide: Chemical formula is SO2. A toxic product of combustion of hydrogen sul?de, normally heavier than air. CAUTION: Inhalation at certain concentrations can lead to injury or death. Refer to Appendix B. 3.2.19 temporary safe haven: Refer to Oshelter-inplaceO (3.2.14).

3.2 DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this standard, the following de?nitions are applicable. 3.2.1 acceptable ceiling concentration (ACC): The designated level of an air contaminant to which an employee may be exposed at any time during an 8-hour shift, except for a time period and up to a concentration not exceeding the Oacceptable maximum peak above the acceptable ceiling concentration for an 8-hour shiftO. 3.2.2 action levels: The levels at which the possibility of hydrogen sul?de atmospheric concentrations greater than 10 ppm or sulfur dioxide atmospheric concentrations greater than 2 ppm may be encountered. 3.2.3 breathing zone: Generally, a hemisphere forward of the shoulders with a radius of 6 in. to 9 in. 3.2.4 continuous hydrogen sul?de monitoring equipment: Equipment capable of continuously measuring and displaying the concentration of hydrogen sul?de in ambient air. 3.2.5 enclosed facility: A three-dimensional space enclosed by more than 2/3 of the possible projected plane surface and of suf?cient size to allow the entry of personnel. For a typical building, this would require that more than 2/3 of the walls, ceiling, and ?oor be present. Refer to API RP 500 and RP 505. 3.2.6 essential personnel: Those individuals required to provide proper and prudent safe operations activities and those required to effect control of the hazardous hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide conditions. 3.2.7 gas detection instrument: An assembly of electrical, mechanical, and chemical components designed to sense and respond continuously to the presence of chemical gases in atmospheric mixtures. 3.2.8 hydrogen sul?de: Chemical formula is H2S. A ?ammable, toxic gas that is heavier than air and sometimes found in ?uids encountered in oil and gas producing and gas processing operations.
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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 49

3.2.20 threshold limit value (TLV): Airborne concentrations of substances representing conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse effects. These value may be expressed as 8-hour time weighted average (TWA), Ceiling Limits, or 15-minute Short-Term Exposure Levels (STEL). Refer to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. OTLVO is a trademarked term of ACGIH.

dioxide. In the interest of safety and health, this standard recommends use of the ACGIH TLVs as action levels for employee safety (refer to Appendices A and B). Individual employers may set their own action levels after review and due consideration of site speci?c conditions, various regulatory requirements, and material safety data sheet (MSDS) information. 4.2 INITIATION OF PROCEDURES Drilling and well servicing operations requiring special materials and equipment or personnel protection should utilize guidelines recommended in this publication. Safety procedures should be initiated and training completed in advance of penetrating the shallowest zone suspected to contain hydrogen sul?de. If hydrogen sul?de conditions speci?ed in 4.1 are unexpectedly encountered, provisions of this publication should be implemented as soon as possible. 4.3 LEGAL REQUIREMENTS This publication presents recommended practices and precautions deemed pertinent to protect personnel and the public from exposure to potentially hazardous concentrations of hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide. These recommended practices recognize that owners, operators, contractors, and their employees have separate responsibilities that may be contractual in nature. It is not the intent of these recommended practices to alter the contractual relationship(s) between the parties. Some of the practices recommended herein are mandatory by local, state, or federal laws, rules, and regulations. Because of the functional and geographical diversity of these requirements, no attempt has been made in these recommended practices to designate which are optional and which are required. Furthermore, even if all the practices recommended herein are followed, there still may be existing or future legally imposed laws or regulations which would not be met. In the event of any omission or con?ict between these recommended practices and legally required action(s), the requirements of laws and regulations must control. Some of the federal regulations (standards) pertinent to safe well drilling and servicing operations involving hydrogen sul?de are listed in Section 2. Users of this publication should review these regulations and other federal, state, and local laws to assure appropriate compliance in their speci?c operations.

4 Applicability
4.1 PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT PROTECTION In oil and gas well drilling and servicing operations, severity of the environment shall be assessed. As a minimum, the following measures shall be implemented: a. Personnel protection should be provided if the work area concentration of hydrogen sul?de (refer to 3.2.8) exceeds 10 ppm 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) or 15 ppm as a Short Term Exposure Level (STEL) averaged over 15 minutes (refer to Appendix A); or the work area concentration of sulfur dioxide (refer to 4.16) exceeds 2 ppm as an 8-hour TWA or 5 ppm as a STEL averaged over 15 minutes (refer to Appendix B). Personnel safety provisions of this publication do not apply when: 1. the atmospheric concentration of hydrogen sul?de could not exceed 10 ppm (by volume) in the breathing zone; or 2. the atmospheric concentration of sulfur dioxide could not exceed 2 ppm (by volume) in the breathing zone. b. Equipment and materials shall be selected on the basis of resistance to sul?de stress cracking and corrosion. Refer to NACE MR0175 for recommendations for selection of equipment and materials. Some conditions may require extensive personnel safety measures but only the use of conventional equipment and materials; other conditions may require the use of special equipment and materials but only minimal personnel safety measures; still other conditions may require both. Throughout this publication, Oaction levelsO for various actions are used to ensure safety of employees and the public. These action levels have been established considering threshold limit values. These TLVs are subject to change and users should check applicable government standards and regulations. A good reference source is the latest edition of the ACGIHOs Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommends a hydrogen sul?de TLV of 10 ppm (8-hour TWA) and a STEL of 15 ppm averaged over 15 minutes and recommends 2 ppm as an 8-hour TWA TLV and 5 ppm as a STEL averaged over 15 minutes for sulfur
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5 Personnel Training
5.1 INTRODUCTION Operators of potential hydrogen sul?de producing properties shall alert all personnel (including employer, service companies, and contractors) of the possibility of hydrogen sul?de atmospheric concentrations greater than 10 ppm and sulfur dioxide atmospheric concentrations greater than 2 ppm that may be encountered in the performance of their work.

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All personnel working in an area where concentrations of hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide may exceed the action levels should be provided with training prior to beginning the work assignment. All employers, whether operator, contractor, or subcontractor, shall be responsible for the training and instruction of their own employees. Personnel assigned to work in areas where they may be exposed to hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide should be trained by a hydrogen sul?de safety instructor. 5.2 MINIMUM TRAINING
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a. Supervisor responsibilities of the contingency plan. b. Effects of hydrogen sul?de on components of the hydrogen sul?de handling system. c. The importance of drilling ?uid treating plans prior to encountering hydrogen sul?de. 5.4 HYDROGEN SULFIDE SAFETY INSTRUCTORS Hydrogen sul?de safety instructors are persons who have: a. Successfully completed a course in hydrogen sul?de instructor training; or b. Received equivalent instruction from a company-designated hydrogen sul?de safety instructor/trainer. A recurring training program shall be implemented to maintain pro?ciency of all hydrogen sul?de safety instructors. 5.5 TRAINING VISITORS AND OTHER NONREGULARLY ASSIGNED PERSONNEL Prior to entering a potentially hazardous area, visitors and other non-essential personnel shall be briefed on route(s) of egress, emergency assembly area(s), applicable warning signals, and how to respond in the event of an emergency, including use of personal protective equipment, if required. These personnel may be allowed in potentially hazardous areas only in the presence of trained personnel, after being briefed on emergency action and evacuation procedures. In the event of an emergency, these personnel shall be immediately evacuated. 5.6 RECORDS Dates, instructors, attendees, and subjects for all personnel training sessions shall be documented and appropriate records should be retained for a minimum of 1 year.

The value of training and periodic drills in oil and gas well drilling, servicing and workover operations cannot be over emphasized. The uniqueness or complexity of a speci?c operation will determine the extent of training deemed necessary for the assigned personnel. However, the following elements are considered a minimum level of training for personnel assigned to the operations: a. The hazards, characteristics, and properties of hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide. b. Sources of hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide. c. Proper use of hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide detection methods used at the workplace. d. Recognition of, and proper response to, the warning signals initiated by hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide detection systems in use at the workplace. e. Symptoms of hydrogen sul?de exposure; symptoms of sulfur dioxide exposure f. Rescue techniques and ?rst aid to victims of hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide exposure. g. Proper use and maintenance of breathing equipment for working in hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide atmospheres, as appropriate theory and hands-on practice, with demonstrated pro?ciency (29 CFR Part 1910.134). h. Workplace practices and relevant maintenance procedures that have been established to protect personnel from the hazards of hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide. i. Wind direction awareness and routes of egress. j. Con?ned space and enclosed facility entry procedures (if applicable). k. Emergency response procedures that have been developed for the facility or operations. l. Locations and use of safety equipment. m. Locations of safe brie?ng areas. 5.3 ADDITIONAL TRAINING FOR ONSITE SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL Those personnel assigned supervising responsibilities at the site shall have additional training in the following elements:

6 Detection Equipment and Personal Protection Equipment (PPE)
6.1 INTRODUCTION This section describes detection equipment and personal protective equipment (PPE) that can be used in oil and gas drilling and well servicing and workover operations where the work area atmospheric concentration of hydrogen sul?de could exceed the action levels of 10 ppm of hydrogen sul?de or 2 ppm of sulfur dioxide. In addition to providing personal protective equipment,personnel should be trained in the selection, use, cleaning, inspection, and maintenance of the PPE. 6.2 DETECTION EQUIPMENT ManufacturersO recommendations should be followed for the installation, maintenance, calibration and repair of detection equipment. If the atmospheric concentration could

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exceed action levels for hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide, detection instruments shall be available on location. In those instances where the hydrogen sul?de atmospheric concentration may exceed the measurement range of the detection instruments in use, an alternative instrument shall be available on location that can measure atmospheric concentrations up to 300 ppm. If sulfur dioxide levels could exceed the action level for sulfur dioxide (e.g., during ?aring or other operations producing sulfur dioxide), either portable sulfur dioxide detection instruments or length-of-stain detectors, with a supply of detector tubes, shall be available on location for determining the sulfur dioxide concentration in the area and to monitor areas impacted by sulfur dioxide gas when ?uids containing hydrogen sul?de are burned. An adequate number of ?xed or portable or both type detectors should be provided for the safety of personnel working. Prior to commencement of operations, there should be a clear understanding as to who will provide detection equipment. 6.3 FIXED (STATIONARY) HYDROGEN SULFIDE MONITORING DETECTION SYSTEMS Fixed hydrogen sul?de atmospheric monitoring systems used in oil and gas well drilling, servicing and workover operations shall include visual and audible alarm(s), located where the alarm can be seen or heard throughout the work area. The batteries of direct current (DC) systems should be checked daily during operation unless an automatic low voltage alarm is provided. 6.4 SENSOR LOCATIONS AND SETTINGS AND EQUIPMENT CALIBRATION 6.4.1 Monitoring equipment (?xed or portable) should be used during all drilling, workover, and well servicing operations where there is a possibility of hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide exceeding the action levels. Sensors should be located at the following locations as appropriate: 1. Bell nipple. 2. Mud-return line receiver tank (possum belly), and/or shale shaker. 3. Pipe-trip tank. 4. Well-control ?uid pit area. 5. DrillerOs/operatorOs station. 6. Living quarters, if located in the close proximity to the well. 7. All other areas where hydrogen sul?de may accumulate that are not part of the con?ned space entry program. 6.4.2 Visual low level alarms shall be set to activate at 10 ppm. High level alarms shall be set no higher than 300 ppm. The high level alarm shall activate an audible evacuation

alarm. For single-set point monitors, the alarm shall be set at 10 ppm. 6.5 EQUIPMENT CALIBRATION AND TESTING Monitoring equipment should be serviced, calibrated, and tested as recommended by the equipment manufacturer. Inspections, calibrations, and tests should be documented. The equipment alarms should be functionally tested at least once daily. 6.6 BREATHING (RESPIRATORY PROTECTION) EQUIPMENT 6.6.1 General 1. Respirators should be selected on the basis of the hazards to which workers are exposed. 2. The user shall be instructed and trained in the proper use of respirators and their limitations. 3. Respirators shall be cleaned and disinfected after each use. 4. Respirators should be stored in a convenient, clean, and sanitary location. 5. Respirators should be inspected during cleaning. Worn or deteriorated parts should be replaced. Respirators for emergency use should be thoroughly inspected at least once a month and after each use. 6. Appropriate surveillance of work area conditions and degree of employee exposure or stress should be maintained. 7. Persons should not be assigned to tasks requiring the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, (SCBA) unless it has been determined that they are physically able to perform the work and use the equipment. 8. Equipment needing repair shall be appropriately tagged and removed from equipment stock until it is suitably repaired or replaced. CAUTION: Air purifying respirators and demand type (negative pressure) air supplied breathing equipment shall not be used in oil and gas well drilling, servicing, and workover operations when a hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide level could exceed the action levels. The following types of respiratory protection equipment, with full-face piece, shall be used where the work area atmospheric concentration exceeds the action levels: 1. Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) positivepressure/pressure-demand breathing equipment that provides respiratory protection; 2. Positive-pressure/pressure-demand air line breathing equipment coupled with a SCBA-equipped low pressure warning alarm and rated for 15 minutes (minimum); or 3. Positive-pressure/pressure-demand, air-line breathing equipment, with an auxiliary self-contained air supply

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(rated for a minimum of 5 minutes). This type unit can be used for entry as long as the air line is connected to a source of breathing air. The auxiliary self-contained air supply (rated for less than 15 minutes) is suitable only for escape. 6.6.2 Storage, Inspection and Maintenance Personal breathing equipment shall be located so that this equipment is quickly and easily available to essential personnel. Additional breathing equipment may be required by site speci?c contingency plans. When an alternative derrick escape means is not available, an escape-type air pack shall be readily available. Breathing equipment shall be maintained and stored in a convenient, clean, and sanitary location. All breathing equipment should be stored to protect them from damage, contamination, dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures and damaging chemicals. The breathing equipment should be packed and stored to prevent deformation of the face piece and exhalation valve. All breathing equipment shall be checked before and after each use and inspected at least monthly to ensure that it is maintained in satisfactory condition. A record of the monthly inspection results, including dates and ?ndings should be retained for a minimum of 12 months. 6.6.3 Face Piece Restrictions Full-face piece breathing equipment-meeting requirements of 6.6.1 shall be used where the work area atmospheric concentration exceeds the action levels. The employer shall ensure that an employee using a tight-?tting face-piece respirator is ?t tested prior to initial use of the respirator. The test should be preformed using the size, style, model, or make of respirator available to the employee. Fit testing should be done annually unless changes in size, style, model, or make of respirator or changes in the individuals facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or obvious changes in body weight requires additional ?t testing. Facial hair which would interfere with the face-piece seal is prohibited. Personnel shall not wear eyeglasses with temple bars that extend through the sealing edge of the face piece. Using approved adapters, corrective prescription lenses may be mounted inside the breathing apparatus face piece. 6.6.4 Respiratory Concerns Based on recent studies it is unlikely that H2S could be inhaled through a perforated eardrum at quantities that would be harmful. Personnel with known physiological or psychological conditions that impair normal respiration shall not be assigned to jobs involving potential exposure to a hydrogen sul?de or sul-

fur dioxide environment if use of the breathing equipment or exposure will complicate their respiratory problems. Personnel assigned job-related tasks requiring routine use of breathing equipment should have a periodic review to determine their physiological and psychological adequacy for use of this equipment. 6.6.5 Air Supply Breathing air quality shall meet the following requirements: 1. Oxygen content 19.5% ? 23.5%. 2. Hydrocarbon (condensed) content of 5 mg/m3 per cubic meter of air or less. 3. Carbon Monoxide (CO) contents of 10 ppm or less. 4. Carbon dioxide content of 1,000 ppm or less. 5. Lack a noticeable odor. 6.6.6 Breathing Air Compressors All breathing air compressors used shall meet the following requirements. 1. Prevent entry of contaminated air into the air-supply system. Inlet air for such compressors shall be monitored when conditions arise that permit possible contamination of the inlet by toxic, ?ammable, or combustible gases. 2. Minimize moisture content so that the dew point at 1 atmosphere pressure is 10?F below the ambient temperature. 3. Have suitable in line air purifying sorbent beds to further ensure breathing air quality. Sorbent beds and ?lters shall be maintained and replaced or refurbished periodically following the manufacturerOs instructions. A tag containing the most recent change date and the signature of the person authorized by the employer to perform the change should be maintained at the compressor. Electronic documentation is an acceptable alternative. 4. For compressors that are not oil lubricated, the employer shall ensure the carbon monoxide levels in the breathing air do not exceed 10 ppm. 5. For oil lubricated compressors the employer shall use a high-temperature or carbon monoxide alarm, or both, to monitor carbon monoxide levels. If only high-temperature alarms are used, the air supply shall be monitored at intervals suf?cient to prevent carbon monoxide in the breathing air from exceeding 10 PPM.

7 Contingency Planning, Including Emergency Procedures
Operators shall evaluate operations involving hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide to determine if contingency plans, special emergency procedures, and/or training are warranted or are required by applicable federal, state, or local regulatory agencies. The evaluation process shall identify potential
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7.1 INTRODUCTION

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emergencies and their impact on operating personnel and the general public. The contingency plan, if required, shall conform to all applicable local, state, and federal regulations regarding noti?cations, precautions, evacuations, and other requirements. 7.2 SCOPE The contingency plan shall contain emergency response procedures that provide an organized immediate action plan for alerting and protecting operating personnel, contractor personnel, and the public. Contingency plans shall consider the severity and extent of the anticipated atmospheric hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide concentrations. Contingency plans shall consider the dispersion characteristics of hydrogen sul?de and sulfur dioxide (refer to Appendix C or other recognized dispersion modeling techniques). 7.3 AVAILABILITY OF PLAN The contingency plan shall be available to all personnel responsible for implementation. 7.4 PLAN INFORMATION Contingency plan provisions may be contained in several plans or in a single plan. Contingency plans for offshore operations should contain greater detail concerning transportation requirements, evacuation of non-essential personnel, safe brie?ng areas and the accumulation of hazardous gases in machinery and personnel spaces. Contingency plans should contain information on the following subjects, as appropriate: a. Emergency Procedures. 1. Responsibilities of personnel. 2. Immediate action plan. 3. Noti?cation list and communication methods. 4. Diagram showing locations of nearby residences, businesses, parks, schools, churches, roads, medical facilities, athletics facilities, other facilities, including vessels offshore where population density may be unpredictable, etc. 5. Evacuation routes and road block locations. 6. Safety equipment and supplies available (e.g., number and location of breathing equipment). b. Characteristics of Hydrogen Sul?de and Sulfur Dioxide. 1. Refer to Appendix A for hydrogen sul?de characteristics. 2. Refer to Appendix B for sulfur dioxide characteristics. c. Facility Description, Maps, and Drawings. 1. Water injection stations. 2. Wells, tank batteries, gas conditioning facilities, and ?owlines. 3. Compression facilities. 4. Safe brie?ng areas. d. Training and Drills.
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1. Responsibilities and duties of essential personnel. 2. Onsite or classroom (tabletop) drills. 3. Informing nearby residents on protective measures in emergency situations, as appropriate. 4. Training and attendance documentation. 5. Brie?ng of public of?cials on issues. 7.5 IMMEDIATE ACTION PLAN Each contingency plan should contain an OImmediate Action Plan,O concise instructions to be followed by designated personnel any time they receive notice of a potentially hazardous hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide discharge. For the protection of personnel (including the general public) and abatement of the discharge, this OImmediate Action PlanO should include the following provisions: a. Alert and account for facility personnel. Move away from the hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide source and get out of the affected area. 1. Don proper personal breathing equipment. 2. Alert other affected personnel. 3. Assist personnel in distress. 4. Proceed to the designated safe brie?ng area. 5. Account for onsite personnel. b. Take immediate measures to control present or potential hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide discharge and to eliminate possible ignition sources. Emergency shutdown procedures should be initiated as deemed necessary to correct or control the speci?c situation. When the required action cannot be accomplished in time to prevent exposing operating personnel or the public to hazardous concentrations of hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide, proceed to the following steps, as appropriate for the site speci?c conditions. 1. Alert the public (directly or through appropriate government agencies), who may be subjected to potentially harmful exposure levels. 2. Initiate evacuation operations. 3. Contact the ?rst available designated supervisor on the call list (refer to 7.4a). Notify the supervisor of circumstances and whether or not immediate assistance is needed. The supervisor shall notify (or arrange for noti?cation of) other supervisors and other appropriate personnel (including public of?cials) on the noti?cation list. 4. Make recommendations to public of?cials regarding blocking unauthorized access to the unsafe area and assist as appropriate. 5. Make recommendations to public of?cials regarding evacuating the public and assist as appropriate. c. Notify, as required, government agencies. d. Monitor the ambient air in the area of exposure (after following abatement measures) to determine when it is safe for re-entry.

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DRILLING AND WELL SERVICING OPERATIIONS INVOLVING HYDROGEN SULFIDE

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7.6 NOTIFICATION LISTS A list of emergency telephone numbers and/or emergency contacts should be prepared and maintained as a part of the contingency plan, considering the need to contact any of the following: a. Emergency Services. 1. Ambulances. 2. Hospitals. 3. Medical personnel (e.g., doctors). 4. Helicopter services. 5. Veterinarians. b. Government Agencies and Contacts. 1. Local emergency planning committee. 2. National response center. 3. State emergency response commission. 4. State and local law enforcement agencies. 5. Fire departments. 6. Other applicable government agencies. c. Operator and Contractors. 1. Operator personnel. 2. Contractor personnel. 3. Applicable service companies. d. Public. Contacts to emergency services or law enforcement agencies should provide noti?cation that a hydrogen sul?de or sulfur dioxide emergency condition exists. 7.7 COMMUNITY WARNING AND PROTECTION PLAN When atmospheric exposures beyond the wellsite could exceed potentially harmful exposure levels, and could affect the general public, the contingency plans should also contain a community warning and protection plan. Appendix C or other recognized dispersion modeling techniques should be used to determine the radii of potential hydrogen sul?de concentrations around the wellsite. Under certain circumstances, consideration should be given to the use of the temporary safe haven or shelter-in-place concept of protection to provide additional time for safe extraction of people from the shelters. 7.7.1 Community Warning and Protection Plan Content The community warning and protection plan should contain information on, but not be limited to, the following subject areas. a. A plan for the noti?cation and evacuation of residents and occupants in the vicinity of the wellsite should the atmospheric concentration in their area reach potentially harmful exposure levels. b. Diagrams and telephone lists showing an identi?cation number, the location, and telephone number (if available) of
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all residences, schools, churches, and businesses, as well as locations of barns, pens, roads, animals, and anything else that might cause people to be present who might need to be warned or evacuated. Access and evacuation routes should be indicated on the map. Anyone requiring assistance for evacuation, such as bedridden, wheelchair bound, etc., should be noted on the list for priority evacuation assistance. c. Recommendations to county authorities and local emergency service organizations for the initial response to protect the public. d. T

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